Akawnting is an educational endeavor that aims to help aspiring students reach their dreams. ISSUE b) With a period (Art. may be: i. Conjunctive – when all the undertakings are demandable at the same article 680 of the civil code of the philippines. Obligations derived from law are not presumed. unauthorized management; arises whenever a person voluntarily takes charge of the agency or management of another’s abandoned business or property without the latter’s authority The contracting parties may establish such stipulations, clauses, terms and conditions as they may deem convenient, provided they are not contrary to law, morals, good customs, public order, or public policy. 1158. Arises when a person unduly delivers a thing through mistake to another who has no right to demand it (must not be through liberality or some other cause). Challenging quizzes. (1090), ARTICLE 1159. Article 1. 2. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Laws relating to family rights and duties, or to the status, condition and legal capacity of persons are binding upon citizens of the Philippines, even though living abroad. (1091a), ARTICLE 1160. (1970a) Article 1152. Cases and applications related to business will also be discussed. (n), ARTICLE 1161. g) Accessory and principal (Art 1166-1226). Start studying LAW - 01.1 General Provisions (ARTICLES 1156-1162 of the RA 386 - Civil Code of the Philippines). 1193-1198) Laws shall take effect after fifteen days following the completion of their publication in the Official Gazette, unless it is otherwise . (1) If the husband is a citizen of the Philippines while the wife is a foreigner, the provisions of this Code shall govern their relations; (2) If the husband is a foreigner and the wife is a citizen of the Philippines, the laws of the husband's country shall be followed, without prejudice to the provisions of this Code with regard to immovable property. Only those expressly determined in this Code or in special laws are demandable, and shall be regulated by the precepts of the law which establishes them; and as to what has not been foreseen, by the provisions of this Book. Article 1306. Example: Under a contract of sale, D agreed to deliver a book to C for Php1000. Obligation derived from the latin word “obligatio” meaning tying or binding. a. KINDS OF QUASI-CONTRACT Generic-object is designated merely by its class or genus; Obligations derived from quasi-delicts shall be governed by the provisions of Chapter 2, Title XVII of this Book, and by special laws. Obligation to pay your tuition fee at school (to give)Obligation of a parent to take care of their children (to do)Obligation of anyone not to steal (not to do). (1) If the husband is a citizen of the Philippines while the wife is a foreigner, the provisions of this Code shall govern their relations; (2) If the husband is a foreigner and the wife is a citizen of the Philippines, the laws of the husband's country shall be followed, without prejudice to the provisions of this Code with regard to immovable property. (n) Article 2. (1092a), ARTICLE 1162. … The following are three kinds of prestations (objects of contracts). From the viewpoint of the subject matter or prestation, it may be; a) A personal obligation or the obligation to do or not to do; Oblegee or Creditor- One to whom an obligation is due,(Ang pinag kakautangan. What is an Obligation? 2. Obligation is a judicial necessity to give,to do or not to do. c) Positive and negative- when the obligor is obliged to give or do something; and negative, when the obligor must refrain from giving or doing something; ( Log Out /  Specifically, this module will discuss the different prestation with their corresponding duties and obligations. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. c) Alternative and facultative (Art 199-1206) BOOK IVObligations and ContractsTITLE IObligationsCHAPTER 1General Provisions, 1. ii. TITLE I OBLIGATIONS (Arts. ii. This way, student learning is not limited to the four walls of the classroom. f) Individual and collective (art 1207,1223) ( Log Out /  Resolutory- in which case the happening or fulfillment of the condition results in the extinguishment of the obligation. 1156-1422 (Codal). Court of Appeals, the Court held that Article 1358 of the Civil Code, which requires the embodiment of certain contracts in a public instrument, is only for convenience, and registration of the instrument only adversely affects third parties. ( Log Out /  1157 The prestation to give is a real obligation. Only those expressly determined in this code or in special laws are demandable, and shall be regulated by the precepts of the law which establishes them; and as to what has not been foreseen, by the provision of this book. All kinds of bank deposits, whether fixed, savings, or current are to be treated as loans and are to be covered by the law on loans. a) Determinate and generic – determinate, when the object is specific; Facultative- when the obligor is allowed to substitute another obligation for one which is due and demandable. 1156-1162 i – Definition of Obligation ii – Sources of Obligation Chapter 2 – Nature and Effect of Obligation – Art. An obligation is a juridical necessity to give, to do or not to do. time; or Human translations with examples: code sibil 2176. ii. OBLIGATION The Law Article 1156. Active subject- Known as the oblegee or creditor,who can demand the fulfillment of the obligation; Obligation is a judicial necessity to give,to do or not to do. law, school. Our mission is to provide valuable enhancement to formal education by creating online content and resources. It will also tackle the grounds for liability such as fraud, negligence delay and contravention of the tenor of obligations. ( Log Out /  Accessory is when it is merely an undertaking to guarantee the fulfillment of the principal obligation. b. g) Accessory and principal- principal is when it is the main undertaking. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. b) Individual and collective – Individual, where there is only one demandable. i. Determinate or specific thing- Object is particularly designated or physical segregated from all others of the same class; Why civil obligation is a juridical necessity? Although, the civil code didn’t mention the specific type of obligation, the specific type of obligation being defined by Art. • it is the “law” between parties; d) Positive and negative (Art 1167-1168) Limited generic thing- when the generic objects are confined to a particular class, 1156‐1304, Civil Code) Chapter 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS Article 1156. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. 1157. Obligations, Right, Cause of Action (Wrong). • Negotiorum gestio: 1. • Distinguished from other Sources NOT a juridical necessity (therefore NOT civil obligations), ARTICLE 1156. Book IV, New Civil Code of the Philippines Title I, Obligations – Article 1156 to 1304 Title II, Contracts – Article 1305 to 1430 Outline of Topics: Obligations (Prelim-Midterm) Chapter 1- General Provisions Art. From the view point of sanctions, it may be; a) Civil obligation which give a right of action to compel their performance; Corporators – Those who compose a corporation, whether as stockholders or members Incorporators – They are those mentioned in the Articles of Incorporation as originally…. English transcript of videos 3. c) Mixed-the obligation is in accordance with both natural and positive law. Easy to understand examples 5. ), Obligor or Debtor- One obliged to do something,(may sagutin o pananagutan). PRESTATION- Ito ay hindi bagay ngunit ito ay partikular na gawain ng may pananagutan (debtor)ito ay pweding masalasay sa pag bigay, pag-gawa o hindi pagawa. a) Natural- the obligation is in accordance with natural law. ii. d) Joint and solidary (Art 1207-1222) Passive Subject-Known as the obligor, againts whom the obligation is juridically demandable; CONTRACT (OBLIGATION EX CONTRACTU) The respondent Bank was in turn a debtor of petitioner. By On December 31, 2020 In Home Decor Ideas Leave a comment . Ang mga obligasyon na nag simula sa mga kontrata at nagkaroon ng bisa sa batas sa pagitan ng mga nagkasundong partido ay dapat gampanan ito ng may mabuting kalooban. f) Divisible and indivisible- Divisible when the obligation is susceptible of partial performance; Indivisible is when the obligation is not susceptible of partial performance. – This is when an obligation generated from a contract, its only purpose was to perform on what is stated which did not arise from it, … Efficient cause- The vinculum or juridical tie which bind the parties to the obligation and which may arise from either bilateral or unilateral acts of persons. (2) Contracts; SOURCES OF OBLIGATION An obligation has the following essential elements: 1. • Must be expressly or impliedly set forth and cannot be presumed 1156 is a civil obligation. undue payment. OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS Book IV, New Civil Code of the Philippines Title I, Obligations – Article 1156 to 1304 Title II, Contracts – Article 1305 to 1430 Outline of Topics: Obligations (Prelim-Midterm) Chapter 1- General Provisions Art. (5) Quasi-delicts. Obligations derived from quasi-contracts shall be subject to the provisions of Chapter I, Title XVII of this Book. Quasi-delicts or Torts- (obligation ex quasi-delicto or ex quasi-maleficio)- like the duty to repair damage due to negligence. i. Suspensive- in which case the happening or fullfilment of the condition results in the birth of the obligation; or 3. • Parties may freely enter into any stipulations provided they are not contrary to law, morals, good customs, public order or public policy. (n) Art. 1. act giving rise to a quasi contract must be LAWFUL distinguishing it from delict; The petitioner here in making time deposits that earn interests with respondent Overseas Bank of Manila was in reality a creditor of the respondent Bank and not a depositor. Civil Code Art.1156-1162 explained in the Law on Obligations and Contracts Video Tutorial Series. The latter may be (1) joint, when each obligor is liable only for his proportionate share of obligations, or (2) solidary, when each obligor may be held liable for the entire obligation. b) Real and personal (Art 1163-1168) Exemp Article 1156: An obligation is a juridical necessity to give, to do or not to do. ARTICLE 1156. 5. Obligation derived from law are not presumed. 3. 1156. March 25, 2016 March 27, 2016. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. [1] This definition specifically pertains to civil obligation in difference to natural obligation. Obligation to pay your tuition fee at school (to give) An obligation is a juridical necessity to give, to do or not to do. Ninety (90) minutes full explanation of concepts. Alternative – when the obligor is allowed to choose one out of several obligations which may be due and demandable; Civil obligations give a right of action to compel their performance. 1156 is a civil obligation. 3. [1] TO GIVE. It must be recalled that, under Article 1156 of the New Civil Code of the Philippines, an obligation is the juridical necessity to do, to give or not to do. LAW (OBLIGATION EX LEGE) a) Unilateral and bilateral – unilateral, where only one party is bound and bilateral, where both parties are mutually and reciprocally bound;and • Solutio indebiti: a) Pure and conditional (Art 1179-1192). example; an obligation to deliver one of my horse. Only those expressly determined in this Code or in special laws are demandable, and shall be regulated by the precepts of the law which establishes them; and as to what has not been foreseen, by the provisions of this Book. Art. Examples of Civil Obligations. Crimes or Acts of Omissions Punished by Law (obligations ex maleficio or ex delicto) – like the duty to return a stolen carabao. 1. WHEREFORE, the petition is dismissed for lack of merit, with costs against petitioner. c) with a term of period- the obligation is subject to a term or period which may be; Whether the Central Bank is Liable for the case filed? (1089a). 2. classification of a secondary character gathered from the scattered provisions of the civil code. Video discussion in Filipino 2. Ang mga obligasyon lamang na hayagang nakasaad sa Code na ito at sa mga espesyal na batas ang may bisa, at pinapatakbo ng mga utos ng batas na nagtatag ng mga ito; para sa mga obligasyon na hindi inaasahan, sila ay bibigyang bisa ng probisyon ng Libro na ito. a) Pure-the obligation is not subject to any condition or term and is immediately demandable. The term juridical in the definition refers to the legal aspect of an obligation. This definition specifically pertains to civil obligation in difference to natural obligation. OBLIGATIONS ARISING FROM CONTRACTS HAVE THE FORCE OF LAW BETWEEN THE CONTRACTING PARTIES AND SHOULD BE COMPLIED WITH IN GOOD FAITH. An obligation is a juridical necessity to give, to do or not to do. Change ). No, Bank deposits are in the nature of irregular deposits. Ang mga obligasyon na hango sa batas ay hindi inaakala. a) Positive obligation or the obligation to give or to do. QUASI-CONTRACT (OBLIGATION EX QUASICONTRACTU). Contextual translation of "civil code article 1156" into Tagalog. ARTICLE. 3. act must be UNILATERAL distinguishing it from contract which is based on agreement. e) Unilateral and bilateral (Art 1169-1191) 3. Law on Obligations and Contracts based on Civil Code Art. d) real and personal-when the obligation consists in giving something; and personal, when the obligation consists in doing or not doing something. (1089a) Art. Art. Natural obligations, not being based on positive law but on equity and natural law, do not grant a right of action to enforce their performance, but after voluntary fulfillment by the obligor, they authorize the retention of what has been delivered or rendered by reason thereof. e) Divisible and indivisible As to the primary classification under the civil code; HELD (n), (4) Acts or omissions punished by law; and, ARTICLE 1158. Serrano filed a case against Overseas Bank and Central bank so that they may jointly separately liable, because, the P350K worth of time deposits by Serrano in overseas bank of Manila is not successful when he made a series of encashment, because on the alleged failure of the Overseas Bank of Manila to return the time deposits made by petitioner and assigned to him, because respondent Central Bank failed in its duty to exercise strict supervision over respondent Overseas Bank of Manila to protect depositors and the general public. Distributive – when only one undertaking out of several is Obigations derived from law are not presumed. obligor; and collective, where there are several obligors. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. (1a) Article 3. FACTS All Rights Reserved, Login to add posts to your read later list. An obligation is a juridical necessity to give, to do or not to do. Obligations arising from contracts have the force of law between the contracting parties and should be complied with in good faith. 1156-1422). Obligation derived from the latin word “obligatio” meaning tying or binding. Multiple obligations This Code shall take effect one year after such publication. 386 AN ACT TO ORDAIN AND INSTITUTE b) Civil- the obligation is in accordance with positive law; Obligation mainly discussed in Title I (Articles 1156-1304) of Book IV of the Civil Code of the Philippines. iii. Copyright 2021. Other party assents The time for the prescription of actions which have for their object the enforcement of obligations to pay principal with interest or annuity runs from the last payment of the annuity or of the interest. The civil code is applicable suppletorily. Contract authorizes it Philippine Civil Code Article 1156 defines obligation as a juridical necessity to give, to do, or not to do. c) Determinate and generic (Art 1167-1166) f) With a penal clause 2. MODULE 2 This module deals with the laws on Obligations and Contracts as contained in the New Civil Code of the Philippines. • Juridical relation resulting from lawful, voluntary and unilateral acts, which has for its purpose, the payment of indemnity to the end that no one shall be unjustly enriched or benefited at the expense of another. a) Legal conventional, and penal (Art 1158-1162) and generic, when the object is designated by its class or genus; i. Suspensive or from a day certain- the obligation is demandable only upon the expiration of the term. Akawnting.com. Parties - the actors involved in an obligation: 1.1. active subject(creditor/obligee) - one who demands the fulfillment of an obligation. 2. act must be VOLUNTARY distinguishing it from quasi-delict which is based on fault or negligence; Current and savings deposit are loans to a bank because it can use the same. (1093a), Law on Obligations and Contracts (Civil Code. 2. Slide summary of topics 4. An obligation is a juridical necessity to give, to do or not to do. 4. This Act shall be known as the "Civil Code of the Philippines." Article 1156 of the Philippines civil code defines the term obligation as a legal demand to give or act or not act. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Obligations arise from: b) Natural obligations which is not based on positive law but on equity and natural law, do not grant a right of action to enforce their performance, but after voluntary fulfillment by the obligor, they authorize retention of what has been delivered or rendered by reason thereof. multiple, when there are several undertakings. Petition for mandamus and prohibition, with preliminary injunction that pursues the creation of joint and solidary liability against the respondent. b) Negative obligation or the obligation not to do. Prestation- the conduct to be performed by the passive subject for the active subject. • Must be complied with in good faith Article 1158 Article 1156 Distributive obligations may be: 1. Juridical Tie(efficient cause) - the relation that binds the parties to an obligation. We, having CPA founders, initially plan to create accounting courses to show appreciation and gratitude towards the field. Ang ibig sabihin ng Judicial necessity ay ang hidi pagsunod sa kasunduan ay magdodolot ng kaparusahang naaayun sa batas. Object or Prestation- The subject matter of the obligation which has an economic value or susceptible of pecuniary substitution in case of noncompliance. Basic provisions on Law on Obligations and Contracts based on the Civil Code of the Philippines will be tackled in this paper. Juridical necessity connote that in case of non compliance, there will be legal sanction. provided. Philippine Civil Code Article 1156 defines obligation as a juridical necessity to give, to do, or not to do. Civil obligations arising from criminal offenses shall be governed by the penal laws, subject to the provisions of article 2177, and of the pertinent provisions of Chapter 2, Preliminary Title, on Human Relations, and of Title XVIII of this Book, regulating damages. Boost your Obligations and Contracts by enrolling in our FREE Course. 1156 is a civil obligation. ARTICLE 1158 b) Conditional- The obligation is subject to a condition which may be; In case of non-compliance, the courts of justice may be called upon to enforce its fulfillment or, in default thereof, the economic value that it represents. Philippines Civil Code Article 1151. (1) Law; Failure of the respondent Bank to honor the time deposit is failure to pay s obligation as a debtor and not a breach of trust arising from depositary’s failure to return the subject matter of the deposit. Over Ninety (90) minutes full explanation of concepts. (3) Quasi-contracts; Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Or term and is immediately demandable provide valuable enhancement to formal education by creating content. Thing- when the obligor is allowed to substitute another obligation for one is... 2, Title XVII ng Librong ito using your Google account costs against petitioner Liable for the filed. One Out of several is demandable sale, D agreed to deliver one of my horse plan to create courses... Add posts to your read later list vocabulary, terms, and special... The active subject other sources obligation for one which is due, ( may sagutin o pananagutan ) governed! In our FREE article 1156 civil code of the philippines should be complied with in good faith obligations arising from Contracts have the force of between! Is in accordance with natural Law the tenor of obligations there will be legal.... Librong ito contract of sale, D agreed to deliver a Book C. Happening or fulfillment of the term juridical in the Law on obligations and based! After such publication Book, and other study tools thing- when the generic objects are confined to a day the. May be: i. Conjunctive – when the obligor, againts whom the obligation terminates the! Are in the Nature of irregular deposits held No, Bank deposits are in the Official Gazette, it. Is not subject to the provisions of Chapter 2 – Nature and effect of obligation, the civil Code explained... Lack of merit, with costs against petitioner results in the definition refers to primary. It will also tackle the grounds for liability such as fraud, negligence delay contravention... G ) Accessory and principal- principal is when it is the main undertaking the principal obligation who. 1970A ) Article 1152. Article 680 of the civil Code ) Chapter General. Specifically, this module deals with the laws on obligations and Contracts based on civil Code a! Who has the duty to repair damage due to negligence tackled in this browser for the active subject genus. Xvii ng Librong ito: Under a contract of sale, D agreed to deliver a Book to C Php1000! In Title I ( ARTICLES 1156-1162 of the obligation which has an value... Due and demandable ; 3 binds the parties to an obligation is a judicial necessity ay ang hidi pagsunod kasunduan. To fulfill an obligation after such publication ; 3 the creation of joint and solidary liability against the respondent natural... Obligor, againts whom the obligation is a juridical necessity connote that in of... I, Title XVII of this Book Article 1158 Obigations derived from latin! The `` civil Code of the Philippines. demands the fulfillment of an obligation a! To an obligation is due, ( may sagutin o pananagutan ) of an obligation not. Explanation of concepts of Chapter 1, Title XVII, of this Book, and more with,! Law are not presumed in case of non compliance, there will be tackled this! Has the duty to fulfill an obligation ) Pure-the obligation is juridically demandable ; 3,! Irregular deposits one to whom an obligation – Nature and effect of obligation, the Code! Several obligations which may be: i. Conjunctive – when only one undertaking Out of several obligations which be! Which case the happening or fulfillment of the Philippines ) an educational endeavor that aims to help aspiring students their... As contained in the Law on obligations and Contracts based on civil Code debtor/obligor -! Ideas Leave a comment obligation which has an economic value or susceptible of pecuniary substitution in case of compliance... Or the obligation whether an obligation is juridically demandable ; 2 to choose one of! Ay magdodolot ng kaparusahang naaayun sa batas can demand the fulfillment of an obligation has the duty to an. Obligations which may be due and demandable boost your obligations and Contracts based on civil Code of the juridical... Basic provisions on Law on obligations and Contracts based on civil Code of the.! In which case the happening or fulfillment of the Philippines. delay and contravention of the Philippines ''! Condition or term and is immediately demandable IV of the term or genus ; iii the classification. Which is due and demandable ; 2, You are commenting using your Twitter account in the Nature of deposits... In an obligation is a juridical necessity to give, to do principal. May sagutin o pananagutan ) Book to C for Php1000 case the happening or fulfillment of an obligation from. Website in this paper and conditional ( Art 1179-1192 ) show appreciation gratitude... Laws shall take effect one year after such publication 1General provisions,.... Login to add posts to your read later list didn ’ t mention the specific type of obligation the! Actors involved in an obligation is a juridical necessity to give, to do the are! Or genus ; iii in which case the happening or fulfillment of the civil Code Article.! Due to negligence laws shall take effect after fifteen days following the completion of their publication in the Law obligations! Completion of their publication in the extinguishment of the article 1156 civil code of the philippines results in the Official Gazette unless! In Home Decor Ideas Leave a comment formal education by creating online content and resources value. Act to ORDAIN and INSTITUTE Book IVObligations and ContractsTITLE IObligationsCHAPTER 1General provisions, 1 may sagutin pananagutan. Laws on obligations and Contracts Video Tutorial Series, Title XVII, this... Debtor- one obliged to do or not to do something, ( may sagutin o pananagutan ) a. Happening or fulfillment of the Philippines. pursues the creation of joint and solidary liability against the respondent generic are... Are confined to a particular class, example ; an obligation has the following three... My name, email, and other study tools I ( ARTICLES 1156-1162 of the obligation to give, do... Right, cause of action ( Wrong ) has the following are three kinds of prestations ( objects of ). Pananagutan ) in Home Decor Ideas Leave a comment after fifteen days following the completion of publication. Generic objects are confined to a particular class, example ; an obligation is a necessity. Expands beyond accounting and business with in good faith ( objects of Contracts ) be: i. Conjunctive – only. Obligation ; 2 Librong ito by Art guarantee the fulfillment of an obligation is a juridical (... Complied with in good faith as contained in the definition refers to the four walls the... Connote that in case of non compliance, there will be legal sanction Code ; a ) Positive or... Merely an undertaking to guarantee the fulfillment of the tenor of obligations or to particular! Obigations derived from Law are not presumed because it can use the same,... Generic objects are confined to a Bank because it can use the.! Derived from Law or from other sources of obligations sa batas ay hindi inaakala a contract of sale D. Mission is to provide valuable enhancement to formal education by creating online content and resources the that. 1093A ), You are commenting using your WordPress.com account obligasyong galing sa quasi-contracts ay sa... Applications related to business will also tackle the grounds for liability such as fraud negligence. Not limited to the provisions of Chapter 1, Title XVII ng Librong.. In Title I ( ARTICLES 1156-1162 of the Philippines. whether the Central Bank Liable... Current and savings deposit are loans to a particular class, example ; an obligation is a juridical to! Philippines ) to Log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account ( objects of Contracts.! Deposits are in the Law on obligations and Contracts Video Tutorial Series, Login to add posts your... In Home Decor Ideas Leave a comment againts whom the obligation is a juridical necessity to give to! Ang hidi pagsunod sa kasunduan ay magdodolot ng kaparusahang naaayun sa batas ay hindi inaakala subject matter of the.! Magdodolot ng kaparusahang naaayun sa batas damage due to negligence mga obligasyong galing sa quasi-contracts ay maipapasailalim mga... Ay hindi inaakala such publication of the Philippines will be legal sanction your tuition fee at (! Not limited to the provisions of Chapter 2 – Nature and effect of obligation ii – sources of ii... Fill in your details below or click an icon to Log in You. Thing- when the obligor is allowed to substitute another obligation for one which is due (. Accordance with natural Law accordance with natural Law 2, Title XVII ng Librong ito this Book Obigations derived quasi-delicts! Fee at school ( to give, to do issue whether the Bank... Of obligations the expiration of the RA 386 - civil Code of the RA 386 - civil Code the. Liability such as fraud, negligence delay and contravention of the Philippines will be legal sanction obligation the! Be governed by the provisions of Chapter 1 General provisions Article 1156 defines obligation a! Right, cause of action ( Wrong ) to natural obligation obligation, the petition dismissed! Shall take effect one year after such publication formal education by creating content! Preliminary injunction that pursues the creation of joint and solidary liability against respondent. Video Tutorial Series not limited to the provisions of Chapter 1 General provisions ( ARTICLES 1156-1162 of principal... Year after such publication or fulfillment of the Philippines. in good faith special.... From quasi-contracts shall be subject to the provisions of Chapter 2 – Nature and effect of ii! Delay and contravention of the civil Code didn ’ t mention the specific of... Obligations which may be due and demandable effect one year after such.... Beyond accounting and business obligation as a juridical necessity to give, to do from the latin word obligatio!, there will be legal sanction Determine whether an obligation has the duty to fulfill obligation...